peer review (200 words each)

“comment and reply on the following two sources.

Works Cited
This report about adding a wildlife control will help the CEO better understand why or why not this division should be added to Arkadia Pest Control. The areas that will be reviewed will go as follow:

An explanation of a wildlife division
Why and how wildlife divisions started
Reasons for implementing a wildlife division
Plan into adding a wildlife section
Startup Costs
Return on investment
Current issues with opening a wildlife division

When Arkadia first started back in 2010, wildlife was offered but limited due to the lack of training and licensing.  Additionally, there was not enough staff to aid in the completion of bigger jobs and because the company was new and income was low, purchasing material was too expensive as well. In 2011, not even a year later, the division was temporarily shut down. At this point the green pest control division was too growing fast anyway. Fast forward to 2020, what was supposed to be temporary for the wildlife division is still present at the company, with no services in that field of work being offered.
Presently, according to the management and finance division at Arkadia, there appears to be a lack of growth physically due to finances over the past two years with the office staff not going above 3 people in 10 years and the increase in technicians only going up about 1 technician per year. Raises at Arkadia are essential to keep company morale up and due to that, there is not enough income to hire anyone else. The current revenue brought in keeps the company afloat, however, gives no room for significant growth as well as being able to offer any benefits such as 401k, health insurance, etc. Arkadia Pest Control, Inc is at a standing point in not only revenue but growth as well. This report will explain why adding a new division will resolve both of those issues. It would be greatly beneficial to the company to add such a sector
Both the habitat of wildlife and wildlife in general is important to society for not only hunting or fishing purposes, but management of it as well.  Wildlife divisions in companies have professionals who aid in solving wildlife problems by issuing solutions using the principles of integrated pest management and/or integrated wildlife management. This is done by putting emphasis on protecting the wildlife, controlling any damage associated with the wildlife, and using capturing and control measures, if needed, in a subjected area.
When it comes to wildlife, issues that arise can range from easy to extremely complicated with and regulations put on managing, controlling, and capturing any wildlife. These, of course, are done with extremely specific safety regulations implemented for not only the safety of the technician but the wildlife as well. It is important for companies to be properly educated so the execution of any wildlife job is properly done. Technicians “will need knowledge of the biology, habitat, signs, and damage caused by various species and you must be an advocate for the wildlife” and “training is important because animal capture, handling, containment and control techniques must be learned, practiced, and mastered. If an animal must be killed or euthanized, then the operator must be skilled in humane dispatch”  (Wildlife Control Training).
All wildlife service’s being offered in NJ, most commonly deals with the following wildlife:
•&νβσπ;&νβσπ;&νβσπ;&νβσπ;&νβσπ;&νβσπ; Bats
•&νβσπ;&νβσπ;&νβσπ;&νβσπ;&νβσπ;&νβσπ; Skunks
•&νβσπ;&νβσπ;&νβσπ;&νβσπ;&νβσπ;&νβσπ; Flying squirrels/squirrels
•&νβσπ;&νβσπ;&νβσπ;&νβσπ;&νβσπ;&νβσπ; Raccoons
•&νβσπ;&νβσπ;&νβσπ;&νβσπ;&νβσπ;&νβσπ; Possums
•&νβσπ;&νβσπ;&νβσπ;&νβσπ;&νβσπ;&νβσπ; Groundhogs
•&νβσπ;&νβσπ;&νβσπ;&νβσπ;&νβσπ;&νβσπ; Birds
Wildlife damage management goes back to the history of hunting and trapping and that’s where regulations were formed. In the 1880s, the Division of Economic Ornithology and Mammalogy developed a program to help determine which species of wildlife were harmful or a nuisance to man, which ones were beneficial, and what ones were a combination of both. In NJ, for instance, bats are protected by the state and always have been. Although very nonaggressive, they are harmful to humans while outside of the home they provide benefits to our eco-system at the same time, such as keeping the number of mosquitoes and other various insects down and provide benefits to crops. Rutgers University, who have a large agriculture department, stated that “bats consume high volumes of insects each night and are the only major predators of nocturnal insects. Depending on the species, bats help remove a significant number of agricultural crop pests, reducing the need for chemical pest control” (Leu). Ultimately, bats help minimize the spread of diseases such as the West Nile Disease, etc. At the same, it is imperative to be remove bats from a house because of the danger they pose, such as spreading disease. Rutgers says tgar “when a large number of bats establish a colony inside a structure, significant amounts of guano can build up, potentially creating a health hazard” (Leu). The removal must be done in a specific time frame and the technician must remove them safely, so they go unharmed. This is just a prime example of a wildlife situation, why wildlife control originated, and why wildlife can be an extremely popular service to add to Arkadia.
When evaluating the company and adding a wildlife division, Arkadia must decide the scope of how intricate the company wants to get into working with animals. For instance, should it just be basic animal removal such as raccoons or groundhogs externally or should it be more extreme internal work, such as removal of squirrels from an attic which would include roof repair and tall ladders. By including all wildlife, especially the harder jobs, Arkadia’s profit would be substantially more in the long run. “The nationwide increase in wild animal problems has spawned a growing industry in suburban and urban areas. Raccoons, squirrels, skunks and woodchucks, the “Big Four” of nuisance animals, have in many cases literally moved into people’s houses” (PCT Pest Control Technology ).
Wildlife jobs tend to bring in anywhere from $400-$600 on average while internal jobs average anywhere between $1200 – $3600. It is important to note that equipment can be expensive, but after looking at the numbers the costs would be made up by performing only five jobs at the most. On top of that, this type of equipment has a shelf life of at least 10 years, so the turnaround is well worth it. Additionally, the amount of jobs estimated to come in weekly, at the minimum, would be 3. For example, Kevin Clark, owner of Critter Control, started his business as a chimney cleaner. He then suddenly had people asking him to remove animals. What was once a chimney company, turned into a wildlife removal company. “Critter Control grew from a one-man operation with sales of $45,000 in 1982 to a $35 million-a-year operation. By 2007, it had more than 100 locations and 450 employees. The company averaged a steady 20 percent annual sales growth for almost 20 years, until Sept. 11, 2001” (Walsh).
Hidden costs may factor into adding a wildlife division such as marketing or the purchase of a vehicle for the division. These expenses need to be discussed and accounted for prior to the addition of the sector being opened. Also, if a vehicle is to be purchased, labeling will be required to represent the company efficiently. The company currently operated with vans for the regular pest control which works very well but a truck would be more beneficial in this section to hold any animals or large equipment. All equipment must be purchased prior to opening so when a job arises, the company is fully prepared. Lastly and most importantly, training and licensing must be implemented. Arkadia must decide the number of techs to be trained. It would be greatly beneficial to the company if all of them were trained so any one of them could perform a job at the same level. 
The two major expense that needs to be evaluated financially would be hiring a tech to help and the purchase of a truck. The truck would be able to be used for at least 10 years and this purchase does not have to be met all up front because it can be financed.  Hiring a tech, on the other hand, would be covered in less than two months every year. For example, if a tech were hired as a helper for $32000/year, Arkadia would have to average 11 jobs at $3000 to cover their salary. If 3 jobs come in a week, this could be recovered in just one month. 
Licensing and training would be another expense. Fortunately, Arkadia is a member of the NJPMA, therefore, the company would save $100 per license which would calculate to $350/tech. With 10 techs on staff, it would only cost the company $3500.  Lastly, the company would have to put money into marketing and labeling. The initial cost for marketing would be high but after the introductory period, the marketing could be included with all the other pest control marketing so the price would stay the same. Labeling for the truck only happens one time so that would also be minimal. Overall, the company would probably average a startup of less than $20,000 with the ongoing expense of a new tech.
Overhead for a wildlife division is minimal, therefore, the return on investment could be remarkably high. The only major expense would be paying an employee to complete the job. As discussed in previous paragraphs, the company at a minimum, will receive at least 3 jobs per week. There are 52 weeks a year so even the income from wildlife, based off the numbers, would be between $62,000-$514,000 at the very minimum. This is going off the lowest job costing $400 to the highest being $3,300. Techs are paid around $30,000-$40,000/year so return on investment would average a profit of $250,000. This would be substantial growth for the company and would allow to possibly expand territory and hire more help.
There are a lot of restrictions and rules when it comes to dealing with removal of wildlife and are evaluated on a case by case basis. The New Jersey department of wildlife states that, “before relocating any adult wildlife during the spring and summer, a search for their newborns should be conducted. If found, these young must be relocated with the adults. Any trapped nuisance wildlife that appears to be injured or sick should be placed with a licensed wildlife rehabilitator for evaluation prior to release. If release on site or relocation of a nuisance animal will create a new problem, euthanasia of the problem animals should be considered” (New Jersey Division of Fish and Wildlife). In NJ, when an animal is trapped, a technician must also go once a day to make sure the animal is not stuck in the cage for too long and check the condition of so. There have been instances in other pest control companies where animals have died from not being checked. A case such as this would be grounds for fines from the state and/or revoking a license from that specific technician. Each animal generally has a specific rule given by the state and they must be adhered to. Another issue is the dangers a technician may face when working in high places such as roofs. Arkadia must make sure that training is done, and proper equipment is met to eliminate any type of accident from occurring.

Managerial incompitencies have led to the closure of businesses due losses incurred hence failure of a company or firm. This creates the need for addressing the issue of mismanagement of businesses which later leads to their collapse. Research has led to the development of ample understanding of managerial competencies that are essential for the success of a business. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the impact of inefficient and ineffective management in various companies by examining the factors that lead to failure of a company.
The problems that motivated this report include the rising incidences of business failure due to poor management. Also, the emotional and physical exploitation of employees at their work places which leads low morale therefore a significantly low productivity.
The target audience for this recommendation report is managers and other leaders in companies. It is of benefit to anyone that holds a position above others in an organization which will give an insight about how their influence affects the performance of a firm. It will also give solutions to mismanagement by analyzing several research cases.
The recommended solution is for the managers to regularly attend training that will improve their managerial skills. This in turn will lead to impressive performance that will increase productivity hence the success of the form and achievement of set objectives.
Ineffective and inefficient management is a broad subject but can be precisely discussed below the following criteria. Managerial incompitencies include the failure of recognizing employees for their accomplishments and only criticizing them for their inadequacies. This makes them feel like they are not valued and also fear to make mistakes. When one fears making mistakes, they are likely to do a substandard job due to the anxiety they experience. Also, it is evident that when people are not recognized, they do not feel motivated.
Managerial competency includes the ability of a manager to possess good communication skills. This is not only in delegating duties but also in recognizing the efforts of the employees and letting them know that their work is appreciated.
Running bad meetings is also part of poor management skills. Meetings are often viewed by employees as a hassle since the managers use them to delegate duties while the staff leave their reports and projects hence their disinterest in attending. They do not share opinions or present new ideas thereby reducing their morale and productivity due to this distraction that scatter their focus.
Good management skills involve ensuring that meetings are attended only by the required audience and not by everyone. Only the involved individuals should attend while the rest should carry on with their tasks at hand.
In addition, managerial incompetency includes instilling fear in the employees. Bad managers tend to threaten the job security of their workers. When employees recognize this, they spend their company time searching for new jobs. Even if they do not search for new jobs, their morale drastically reduces and they spend time gossiping. Managers who impart fear allot blame, answer questions vaguely and withhold information. Fear causes anxiety to the staff leading to low productivity
A good manager ought to create an atmosphere of honesty and trust where all workers are comfortable and happy. They should not have to carry the burden of wondering if each day is their last. The manager should show transparency and adequately sharing information. They should refrain from blaming others and take responsibility to take moments of failure and turn them into growth opportunities.
Bad management involves creating a negative working environment through favoritism, managerial absence and inconsistent policies. Employees subjected to this traits experience anxiety and stress leading to low productivity. A manager who treats some people special causes distress at the work place to other staff members.
Managerial competency involves the manager being present thereby showing they recognize the employees as equals. He should keep the policies consistent and treat everyone justly. He should get involved in his employees work regardless of their level.
Data/ Research
Research indicates the connection between managerial competencies and the productivity of firms. Research findings based on a sample obtained from four big airline organizations in Jordan are reliable. The hypotheses were tested using a data set that was collected by interviewing 62 managers. Findings showed that managers who exhibited competencies such as problem- solving, strategic skill, leadership and customer focus were successful. They were found to have a positive relationship with the organization’s performance. On the other hand, managers who lacked these competencies led to deterioration in productivity. Since effective management determines the business’s performance, managers should attend training that will boost their managerial skills regularly. Serra, C. E. M., & Kunc, M. (2015)
The journal about an analysis of the relationship between knowledge management and firm performance. The study displays that there is a relationship between good performance and novelty as one of the qualities of knowledge management. The research suggests that firms should consider utilizing good leadership qualities of knowledge management that leads to good financial performance. Good leadership qualities such as effectiveness, efficiency, innovation, creativity, and quality customer experience have been linked to increased productivity. Leaders who possess such qualities should continuously boost their knowledge to remain updated. Inkinen, H. (2016).
The research conducted a study in 151 microenterprises in Malaysia, which concluded that key management activities and entrepreneurial orientation led to good performance. Those microenterprises with managers who possessed managerial competencies were seen to report increased sales and profitability; while managers who lacked managerial competencies led to business failure. The authors indicated that other factors affected the performance of microenterprises, such as outside financing and government support. Managers with key management qualities such as relationship management, time management, budgeting, and good customer services were able to increase sales quickly. Munoz, J. M., Welsh, D. H., Chan, S. H., & Raven, P. V. (2015).
The study is about the effects of health facility management on the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. The study was conducted on 32 samples. From the study, clinicians, nurses, and other medics expressed their struggle to meet the unrealistic targets set due to limited resources and time. Most lacked knowledge and skills of how to deal with diabetic patients, therefore, registering poor performances. Limited time reduces the care clinicians give to their patients, therefore, leading to emotional instability. Since high targets and lack of knowledge by clinicians have led to insufficient treatment of people with type two diabetes, effective management skills such as quality time allocation should change the situation. Effective management should ensure that clinicians are well equipped with knowledge and information on type 2 diabetes to offer quality treatment to patients. Training on how to initiate insulin and give emotional support will eliminate the poor performance registered. Rushforth, B., McCrorie, C., Glidewell, L., Midgley, E., & Foy, R. (2016).
Data Analysis
The data above clearly indicate that management is an essential component in determining the success of any given business. Managers have a huge task ahead to ensure creation of a friendly work environment for the workers to ensuring customer focus. They should understand that management is much more than just delegating responsibilities to workers. It is their task to ensure provision of resources, adequate time and motivation to the staff. This is directly related to the performance of an organization, in that, good management skills lead to success of a business.
The findings from various research cases are of significance since each case is unique and shows a different role of a manager. They bring an image of how managing a company is an easy task yet one of great value. Managerial competencies are the glue that holds the organization together and determines its success. Managers should recognize and appreciate their workers, treat all workers equally and establish open communication with the staff.
Recommendations on the next course of action based on the discussion above include: establishment of a training program for managers to regularly learn new managerial skills and improve the ones they have. Also, they should communicate effectively with the staff to determine their challenges at work and offer solutions. The managers should ensure that the organization is client based; they should focus on the customer and evolve with the change in market demand. They ought to equalize everyone at the place of work. They should not threaten workers with losing their jobs.  They should utilize the knowledge both theirs and that to the staff to maximize on the financial profit.
Arkadia should go over the various directions they could go with wildlife control. Most pest control companies have a division due to the profitability and it would be wise if Arkadia do the same. It would additionally create a more competitive environment because Arkadia would offer beyond simply basic pest and rodent control. Customers could turn to the company for everything, instead of outsourcing, and that would be extremely attractive to the market.
The topics that have been discussed go as follow: what is a Wildlife Division, how did wildlife Control originate, reasons for implementing wildlife control, plan for adding a wildlife section, startup costs for adding a wildlife division, and return on investment. My recommendation would be to hold a meeting with the master techs and gather ways to slowly introduce the wildlife division into Arkadia.