Please answer the following questions.

“1) What are the greatest environmental challenges for the Middle East and North Africa? Which is the most serious? Why?
 2) Which agriculture system—dry farming, irrigation, qanat—seems most promising to meet future food needs.
 3) Which energy sources holds the most promise for the Africa?
 4) What are the democratic and economic impacts of the Arab Spring?
 5) Describe the arrangement of neighborhoods in a typical African city.
 6) Why has resource wealth in Sub-Saharan Africa not translated into wealth for Sub-Saharan African countries and what measures are being undertaken to retain more profits for these countries?
 7) Which colonial style of governance was most devastating to Africa.
 8) Why would a rural resident of a country in Sub-Saharan Africa move to a city slum?
 9) How have/will HIV/AIDS and gender inequalities affect future development in Sub-Saharan Africa?
 10) How can cell phones promote development in Sub-Saharan Africa?
 11) South Sudan broke away from Sudan in 2011. Explain at least one reason why Nigeria has avoided splintering in this way.
 12) How was apartheid implemented in a geographic sense? In other words, what places were specifically targeted by apartheid policies?