“explain the significance of Umayyad al-Andalus and the main features of its society
describe the resurgence of the Byzantine Empire and how that influenced surrounding societies.
identify important areas of Viking influence and how Viking society influenced Europe.
discuss the historical context for the Great Schism between Catholic and Orthodox Christianity.
describe the papal-imperial struggle for leadership during the medieval era.
discuss the rise of the university and its implications for medieval society.
identify the important decisions that led to the establishment of a new (Carolingian) Roman Empire in Western Europe.